Download an entire website to browse offline with wget in Linux.
To download an entire website from Linux it is often recommended to
wget, however, it must be done using the right parameters or the
downloaded website won’t be similar to the original one, with probably
relative broken links. This tutorial explores the right combination to
download a website:
- converting relative links to full paths so they can be browsed offline.
- preventing requesting too many web pages too fast, overloading the server and possibly being blocked from requesting more.
- avoid overwriting or creating duplicates of already downloaded files.
GNU Wget is a free utility for non-interactive download of files from the Web
Wget needed parameters
wget command is very popular in Linux and present in most
To download an entire website we use the following parameters:
Wait the specified number of seconds between the retrievals. In this case 2 seconds.
Limit the download speed to amount bytes per second.
Turn on recursive retrieving. The default maximum depth is 5.
- If the website has more levels than 5, then you can specify it with
download all the files that are necessary to properly display a given HTML page.
This includes such things as inlined images, sounds, and referenced stylesheets.
Identify as Mozilla to the HTTP server.
Do not ever ascend to the parent directory when retrieving recursively.
After the download is complete, convert the links in the document to make them suitable for local viewing.
If a file of type application/xhtml+xml or text/html is downloaded and the URL does not end with the regexp
\.[Hh][Tt][Mm][Ll]?, this option will cause the suffix .html to be appended to the local filename.
When running Wget with -r, re-downloading a file will result in the new copy simply overwriting the old. Adding -nc will prevent this behavior, instead causing the original version to be preserved and any newer copies on the server to be ignored.
turn off the robot exclusion
Specify recursion maximum depth level depth. Use
infas the value for inifinite.
Summarizing, these are the needed parameters:
wget --wait=2 \ --level=inf \ --limit-rate=20K \ --recursive --page-requisites \ --user-agent=Mozilla \ --no-parent \ --convert-links \ --adjust-extension \ --no-clobber \ -e robots=off \ https://example.com
Or in one line:
wget --wait=2 --level=inf --limit-rate=20K --recursive --page-requisites --user-agent=Mozilla --no-parent --convert-links --adjust-extension --no-clobber -e robots=off https://example.com
Let’s try to download the https://example.com website (single page)
to see how verbose is
wget and how it behaves.
$ wget --wait=2 --limit-rate=20K --recursive --page-requisites --user-agent=Mozilla --no-parent --convert-links --adjust-extension --no-clobber https://example.com --2017-06-30 19:48:46-- https://example.com/ Resolving example.com (example.com)... 22.214.171.124 Connecting to example.com (example.com)|126.96.36.199|:443... connected. HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK Length: 1270 (1,2K) [text/html] Saving to: ‘example.com/index.html’ example.com/index.html 100%[===========================================================>] 1,24K --.-KB/s in 0,003s 2017-06-30 19:48:46 (371 KB/s) - ‘example.com/index.html’ saved [1270/1270] FINISHED --2017-06-30 19:48:46-- Total wall clock time: 0,6s Downloaded: 1 files, 1,2K in 0,003s (371 KB/s) Converting links in example.com/index.html... nothing to do. Converted links in 1 files in 0 seconds. $ tree example.com/ example.com/ └── index.html 0 directories, 1 file
Wget already comes with a handy
--mirror paramater that is the
same to use
-r -l inf -N. That is:
- recursive download
- with infinite depth
- turn on time-stamping.
Download all the URLs at website’s sitemap
Another approach is to avoid doing a recursive traversal of the
website and download all the URLs present in
Filtering url from sitemap
A sitemap file typically has the form:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <urlset xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9 http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9/sitemap.xsd" xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9"> <url> <loc>https://marcanuy.com/en/projects/conversions</loc> <lastmod>2014-09-15T00:00:00-03:00</lastmod> </url> <url> <loc>https://marcanuy.com/en/projects/games-for-kids</loc> <lastmod>2014-09-15T00:00:00-03:00</lastmod> </url> </urlset>
We need to get all the URLs present in
Removing loc tags
Now to remove the superfluous tags: sed -e 's/<[^>]*>//g'`
Putting it all together
After the previous two command we have a list of URLs, and that is the
parameter read by
wget -i `grep "
And wget will start downloading them sequentially.
wget is a fantastic command line tool, it has everything you will
ever need without having to use any other GUI tool, just be sure to
browse its manual for the right parameters you want.
The above parameters combination will make you have a browseable website locally.
You should be careful to check that
.html extensions works for your
case, sometimes you may want that wget generates them based on the
Content Type but sometimes you should avoid wget generating them as is
the case when using pretty urls.